domingo, noviembre 15, 2009

La legendaria torre dormida en el Palacio

(Éste es uno de los reportajes más interesantes que he realiado últimamente. Lástima que no me dieran más espacio para publicarlo). http://www.huelvainformacion.es/article/provincia/558258/la/legendaria/torre/dormida/palacio.html


El director de Promoción Cultural de la Universidad de Huelva, Juan Luis Carriazo, lo tenía claro: en el corazón del Palacio de Doñana yacían los restos de una legendaria torre solapada por el irreductible desdén del tiempo. Su vocación, la de profesor de Historia Medieval en la Onubense, y su inquietud investigadora le han impulsado durante años a bucear por los archivos nobiliarios. Ya en 1999, Carriazo había publicado un libro titulado A través de Doñana en el siglo XVII, donde narraba un viaje que había realizado el Conde de Niebla desde Huelva hasta Sanlúcar de Barrameda y en el que ya mencionaba el aposento de la torre. En su poder tenía Carriazo algunos planos del siglo XVIII en los que se describía "con gran detalle la ubicación de ésta, sus medidas exactas, los aposentos, la planta baja y la superior", a través de los que pudo constatar que la potencia de los muros del torreón era "mayor que los del resto del Palacio de Doñana, lo que indicaba que era anterior o que pertenecía a otro momento constructivo". Como complemento, el investigador de la Universidad de Huelva localizó en los archivos de Medina Sidonia textos descriptivos "de personas del pasado que la habían conocido, que decían incluso lo que se veía desde arriba o que se accedía a ella a través de un puente levadizo".




La datación histórica del palacio, del que las instalaciones de la Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD) del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) ocupan buena parte de su superficie, se ha fijado en torno a 1585, la segunda mitad del siglo XVI, época coetánea a Felipe II. La torre "era anterior, pero no podíamos decir de qué época". Juan Luis Carriazo confesó que la daba "por desaparecida", puesto que no quedaba ninguna evidencia visible a simple vista de la fortificación. En ocasiones, preguntó a "personal de la EBD y de Doñana si recordaba restos de la torre, pero nunca nadie me dio una pista sobre el asunto".


En mayo de 2008 contactó con un buen amigo, el fotógrafo Héctor Garrido -que trabaja para el CSIC-, para realizar una visita al corazón del parque. Carriazo mostró a Garrido una copia del plano que señalaba la ubicación del torreón palaciego. Éste localizó enseguida el punto exacto: los establos de la propiedad de la familia González Gordón. "Fue algo increíble, hubo muchas casualidades que nos llevaron hasta allí", declaró el fotógrafo. Y es que "ese lugar generalmente está cerrado, pero aquel día empujamos la puerta y descubrimos que estaba abierta", chirriaron los goznes, crujió la madera, se adentraron en la penumbra.

Carriazo encabezó la incursión con la vista puesta en la solería, donde buscaba alguna evidencia, "una marca o espacio que recordara el lugar en el que había estado". Jamás pensó que era posible lo que encontraron finalmente. Frente a sus ojos se alzaba ajena al devenir de los tiempos la planta baja de la torre. Los muros inclinados en talud ("el alambor"), coronados por una moldura decorativa que enlazaba la estructura de base con la pared recta de la torre, y su cámara interior se conservan al completo. Supuso "una sorpresa espectacular", una descubrimiento que Héctor Garrido define, simplemente, como "emocionante".




Se trata de unos restos de muro de gran envergadura, con una altura de más de dos metros y una longitud de ocho metros por ocho metros. La torre "era muy alta para la época, tenía en torno a los 40 metros de altura", especificó Carriazo. Los textos de la época "nos señalan que podría haberse construido en 1416". Principios del siglo XV, casi dos siglos antes de la edificación del Palacio de Doñana, lo que corrobora que durante la Edad Media existió actividad social y económica en el Coto. Era una torre para controlar la ruta de paso del ganado hacia las zonas de pasto de Doñana, ubicada a mitad de camino entre Sanlúcar de Barrameda y El Condado, un corredor que posibilitaba a los Guzmanes atravesar la provincia de una punta (La Puebla de Guzmán) a otra sin abandonar sus dominios. Las fotografías del archivo de la EBD-CSIC de los años 60 del siglo pasado refrendan que todavía estaba en pie el torreón y que se usaba como palomar. Garrido y Carriazo pudieron, incluso, localizar al albañil que demolió el cuerpo superior de la fortificación. "Uno de los guardas de Doñana recordaba cómo había entrado en la cámara inferior, dónde habían aparecido esqueletos", un hallazgo que ha generado la aparición de leyendas que hablaban de que constituía "la mazmorra". Ahora, es necesario iniciar los estudios arqueológicos pertinentes para poder datarla con exactitud.
Fotografías: Héctor Garrido/ EDB-CSIC

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